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Insurance Resources

iStock_000014494710XSmallNYSPA's Insurance Committee's Avenues for Seerking Help with Insurance Issues guide

NYSPA provides insurance resources as part of our commitment to allow members access to the most up-to-date information possible to support their practices. We hope this section will prove to be an invaluable tool and daily resource.

The information is regularly, addressing the most frequently asked and discussed topics on NYSPA’s listserve, and calls received at Central Office. Use the following link to access the weekly topics highlighted in the NYSPA Friday Flash newsletter in the 'Just Ask Me" section.  We invite members to share their knowledge and experience with colleagues by sending  suggestions and new information to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

This site also allows members to learn more about NYSPA's Insurance Committee and how they are helping shape the future and protect your interests as a psychologist.

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Recently Issued or Revised Worker's Compensation Board Forms

Recently Issued or Revised Workers' Compensation Board Forms

9-1-09 through 12-31-10 FORM NO. TITLE DATE

AFF-1 Affidavit for Death Benefits 12-10
AFF-2 OBSOLETE – Use AFF-1 in all circumstances.
AFF-3 OBSOLETE – Use AFF-1 in all circumstances.
C-3 Employee Claim 11-10
C-3S Reclamación del Empleado (Spanish version of Form C-3) 11-10
C-3.3 Limited Release of Health Information (HIPAA) 12-09
C-4 Doctor's Initial Report 12-10
C-4 AMR Ancillary Medical Report 12-10
C-4 AUTH Attending Doctor's Request for Authorization and Carrier's Response 12-10
C-4.2 Doctor's Progress Report 12-10
C-5 Attending Ophthalmologist's Report 12-10
C-8.1 Notice of Treatment Issue/Disputed Bill 12-10
C-8.4 Notice to Health Care Provider and Injured Worker of a Carrier's Refusal to Pay All (or a Portion of) a Medical Bill Due to Valuation Objection(s) 12-10
C-32 Settlement Agreement, Section 32 11-09
C-32.1 Section 32 Settlement Agreement: Claimant Release 6-10
C-105.11 Consent to NYS Workers' Compensation Board Jurisdiction for non-New York Licensed Carriers (3C Coverage) 11-10
C-257 Claimant's Record of Medical and Travel Expenses and Request for Reimbursement 9-10
C-258 Claimant's Record of Job Search Efforts/Contacts 8-10
C-312.5 Agreed Upon Findings and Awards For Proposed Conciliation Decision (Represented Claimants Only)  12-10
DB-120 Notice of Compliance – Disability Benefits Law 6-10
MD-1 Attending Doctor's Request for Medical Authorization Determination 12-09
MD-3 Carrier/Board-Approved Self-Insured Employer's Objection to Attending Doctor's Request for Medical Authorization Determination 12-09
MG-1 Attending Doctor's Request for Optional Prior Approval and Carrier's/Employer's Response 12-10
MG-1.1 Continuation to Form MG-1, Attending Doctor's Request for Optional Prior Approval 12-10
MG-2 Attending Doctor's Request for Approval of Variance and Carrier's Response 12-10
MG-2.1 Continuation to Form MG-2, Attending Doctor's Request for Approval of Variance 12-10
MR-4 Impartial Specialist's Report of Medical Records Review 12-10
OC-110A Claimant's Authorization to Disclose Workers' Compensation Records (WCL Section 110-a) 12-09
OC-110AORD Request for Judicial Order – Access to Case Files 7-10
OT/PT-4 Occupational/ Physical Therapist's Report 12-10
PS-4 Psychologist's Report 12-10
RB-89 Cover Sheet – Application for Board Review 6-10
RB-89.1 Cover Sheet – Rebuttal of Application for Board Review 6-10
RB-89.2 Cover Sheet – Application for Reconsideration / Full Board Review 6-10
RB-89.3 Cover Sheet – Rebuttal of Application for Reconsideration / Full Board Review  6-10
RFA-1LC Request for Further Action by Legal Counsel 12-10
RFA-1W Request for Assistance by Injured Worker 12-10
RFA-1 OBSOLETE – Attorney/Representative should use RFA-1LC. Injured Worker should use RFA-1W
RFA-2 Carrier's/Employer's Request for Further Action 12-10
W-32R WAMO Settlement Agreement-Section 32 11-09
WTC-12 Registration of Participation in World Trade Center Rescue, Recovery and/or Cleanup Operations: Sworn Statement Pursuant to WCL §162 12-09

New York Medical Treatment Guidelines

New York Medical Treatment Guidelines, First Edition, June 30, 2010
Effective December 1, 2010
Below are the Medical Treatment Guidelines, First Edition, June 30, 2010, Effective December 1, 2010.


Medical Treatment Guidelines are also available for purchase in either printed or CD (compact disc) format by mail, using Form GA 28.2, Medical Treatment Guidelines Order Form  which includes associated costs. Orders submitted for purchase of Guidelines, must be accompanied by payment in full in the form of a check or money order. Vouchers, cash and credit cards are not accepted forms of payment. Printed and CD versions of the Guidelines are available only through the mail and are not available for purchase at Workers' Compensation Board offices.

Please allow at least 6 weeks for delivery of printed or CD copies. Questions related to orders that have not been received may be directed to the Health Provider Administration office at 800-781-2362.

New York Mid and Low Back Injury Medical Treatment Guidelines, First Edition, June 30, 2010
New York Neck Injury Medical Treatment Guidelines, First Edition, June 30, 2010
New York Knee Injury Medical Treatment Guidelines, First Edition, June 30, 2010
New York Shoulder Injury Medical Treatment Guidelines, First Edition, June 30, 2010


Revised PS4 Form link: http://www.wcb.state.ny.us/content/main/hcpp/MedicalTreatmentGuidelines/forms/ps4.pdf:

Revised Board Forms To Be Used For Dates of Service On or After December 1, 2010
NOTE: The changes to the C-4 forms are instructional only. Therefore, the Board will continue to accept the current versions of these forms after December 1, 2010, but encourages providers to use the updated version as soon possible.

C-4, Doctor's Initial Report
C-4.2, Doctor's Progress Report
C-4 AMR, Ancillary Medical Report
C-4 AUTH, Attending Doctor's Request for Authorization and Carrier's Response
C-5, Attending Ophthalmologist's Report
EC-4 NARR, Doctor's Narrative Report
C-8.1, Notice of Treatment Issue/Disputed Bill
OT/PT-4, Occupational/Physical Therapist's Report
PS-4, Attending Psychologist's Report
C-8.4, Notice to Health Care Provider and Injured Worker of a Carrier's Refusal to Pay All (or a Portion of) a Medical Bill Due to Valuation Objection(s)

Frequently Asked Questions link: http://www.wcb.state.ny.us/content/main/hcpp/MedicalTreatmentGuidelines/FAQs.jsp

Frequently Asked Questions

Key Facts

What are Medical Treatment Guidelines?
The Medical Treatment Guidelines are evidence based standards of care and best practices for the medical treatment of work related injuries.

Are the Medical Treatment Guidelines mandatory?
Use of the Guidelines will be mandatory for treatment rendered to the mid and low back, the knee, the shoulder and the neck for dates of service on or after December 1, 2010, regardless of the date of injury.

Do the Medical Treatment Guidelines apply to all work related injuries and illnesses?
The Guidelines apply only to medical treatment to the mid and low back, the knee, the shoulder and the neck.

Do the Guidelines have to be adhered to if the injured worker needs emergency treatment?
The Treatment Guidelines do not have to be adhered to if emergent medical care is necessary.

Do the Medical Treatment Guidelines apply to all payer types?
The Guidelines apply to all private and municipal self-insured employers, group self-insured trusts, all Special Funds, the State Insurance Fund, and private insurance carriers.

What is the Workers' Compensation Board Medical Director's Office?
The Board's Medical Director's Office (MDO) has an important role in the administration of the Medical Treatment Guidelines. The office is comprised of the Medical Director, Assistant Medical Director and nursing staff located in Albany and Brooklyn.

The responsibilities of the MDO include the oversight of all medical issues at the Board which include the following:

  • promoting high quality care and outcomes for all injured workers
  • implementing the Medical Treatment Guidelines
  • updating the Medical Treatment Guidelines
  • educating and training guideline users statewide



The Medical Director also oversees the Health Provider Administration (HPA) unit.

How do I obtain a copy of the Guidelines?
The Guidelines and the regulations are on the Board’s web site. Paper copies or a CD can be requested by submitting the Medical Treatment Guidelines Order Form and including the fee.

How do I use the Medical Treatment Guidelines?
Medical providers are expected to become familiar with the Guidelines and render treatment that is consistent with the Guidelines. When completing special Guideline forms, the medical provider should include the Guideline codes for each requested test or treatment (each test or treatment is assigned a specific series of numbers and letters in the Guidelines).

Are insurance carriers required to comply with the Medical Treatment Guidelines?
Yes. The regulations require insurance carriers to incorporate the Medical Treatment Guidelines into their policies, procedures, and practices and report their compliance to the Workers’ Compensation Board. The regulations require that insurers must pay providers for services rendered in accordance with the Guidelines.

Is the insurance carrier required to designate certain individuals to serve as a point of contact to assist the Board and medical providers with Medical Treatment Guidelines issues?
Every insurance carrier is required to designate a qualified employee or employees if it handles its own claims, or a qualified employee or employees of its licensed representative as a point of contact for the Board and Treating Medical Providers regarding requests for optional prior approval and requests for a variance within 30 days of the effective date of the regulations. The insurance carrier must also designate a qualified employee or employees, or designate a qualified employee or employee of it’s licensed representative, to receive and act upon requests for authorization for procedures that are not pre-authorized under the Guidelines. The designated employee’s name, telephone number, fax number, and e mail address must be reported to the Workers’ Compensation Board. In addition, if there is a change in the designated point(s) of contact, the change must be reported to the Board within 10 business days of the change. This information will be available on the Board’s web site

How is a medical professional defined?
An insurance carrier’s medical professional means a physician, registered physician assistant, registered professional nurse, or nurse practitioner licensed in New York State, or the appropriate state where the professional practices, who is employed by an insurance carrier or Special Fund, or has been directly retained by the insurance carrier or Special Fund or is employed by a URAC accredited company retained by the insurance carrier or Special Fund through a contract to review claims and advise the insurance carrier or Special Fund.

Training

Does the Board offer training on the Guidelines?
Yes. Free web-based training is available beginning October 4, 2010. Programs have been designed for different audiences, including medical professionals, attorneys, claims handlers, and provider office staff.

History

How were the Guidelines developed?
The Guidelines are an important component of the 2007 workers' compensation reform, and were initially developed by the Governor's Workers' Compensation Reform Task Force and its advisory committee comprised of well credentialed medical professionals and representatives of business and labor. Over the past year, the Board's Medical Director and other staff have reviewed and updated the Guidelines in light of the comments received by the Board and recent developments in medical literature. The guidelines are a compilation of guidelines from ACOEM and the State of Colorado, and input from the advisory committee.

What are the benefits of Medical Treatment Guidelines?

The Guidelines will:

  • Set a single standard of medical care for injured workers,
  • Expedite quality care for injured workers,
  • Improve the medical outcomes for injured workers,
  • Speed return to work by injured workers,
  • Reduce disputes between payers and medical providers over treatment issues,
  • Increase timely payments to medical providers, and
  • Reduce overall system costs.
  • Why were the back, neck, shoulder and knee selected for Treatment Guidelines?

These areas of the body represent the most common and most costly workplace injuries. Together they account for 40% of workers' compensation claims and 60% of the system's medical costs.

Have the Medical Treatment Guidelines been tested in New York?
Yes. The Board conducted a pilot program beginning November 30, 2009 with participating medical providers and insurance carriers involving actual workers' compensation cases. More than 1,000 cases have been handled by the pilot. Participants reported excellent results in terms of promoting communication between providers and carriers and delivering treatment faster to injured workers. Providers also reported that they had fewer disputes and received faster payment for treatment.

Pre-Authorization


Will the procedures recommended by the Medical Treatment Guidelines require pre-authorization if the cost exceeds the $1,000 threshold?
With limited exceptions that are clearly noted in the Guidelines, the testing and treatment that is provided in the Guidelines is pre-authorized. Therefore, the $1,000 pre- authorization threshold does not apply and consent by the insurance carrier will no longer be required. Health care providers will be able to treat without pre- authorization, so long as the care is consistent with the Guidelines. A list of procedures specifically identified in the Guidelines, and a repeat of a surgical procedure that has failed or an earlier surgical procedure has had incomplete success will require pre-authorization. The procedures are as follows:

  • Lumbar fusions
  • Artificial disk replacement
  • Vertebroplasty
  • Kyphoplasty
  • Electrical bone growth stimulators
  • Spinal Cord Stimulators
  • Anterior acromioplasty of the shoulder
  • Chrondoplasty
  • Osteochondral autograft
  • Autologus chrondocyte implantation
  • Meniscal allograft transplantation
  • Knee arthroplasty (total or partial knee joint replacement)

The repeat performance of a surgical procedure due to failure of, or incomplete success from the same surgical procedure performed earlier, and if the medical treatment guidelines do not specifically address multiple procedures.
For the procedures within the Guidelines that require pre-authorization, how do medical providers request it?
The request for pre-authorization should be made by completing the revised C-4AUTH form and submitting it to the insurance carrier and the Workers’ Compensation Board. The revised form will be available on the Board’s web site.

Optional Prior Approval

Is there anything medical providers can do if they want assurance that their interpretation of the guidelines is correct, or if they need an approval document for a hospital or other entity?
Yes. The regulations provide for an optional prior approval procedure where the medical provider can request optional prior approval from a PARTICIPATING insurance carrier to determine correct application of the Guidelines. A Board form (MG-1) will be available for this purpose on the Board's web site.

Are all insurance carriers and other payer types required to participate in the optional prior approval process?
No. This process is only available if the insurance carrier or employer is participating in the optional prior approval program. A list of insurance carriers and employers who have opted out of the optional prior approval process will be available on the Board's web site.

What is the difference between Pre-authorization and Optional Prior Approval?
A. Pre-authorization: For the four body parts covered by the Guidelines, pre-authorization is only required for procedures listed in the FAQ on pre-authorization. The pre-authorization process, which is currently used for treatments or procedures exceeding a $1,000 threshold, will continue to be used for all other body parts. The pre-authorization process uses the C-4 AUTH form and it gives the carrier 30 days to respond to a request. During that period, the carrier has the right to obtain an IME or records review. To deny a pre-authorization request, the carrier must show a conflicting medical opinion.

B. Optional Prior Approval: This process is streamlined and much more limited in focus, and is designed to only answer one question, "is the requested treatment or test a consistent application of the guidelines?" Providers are encouraged to submit the form (MG-1) electronically. Carriers have 8 business days to respond. Disputes are resolved by a binding decision of the Board's Medical Director's office. The process allows medical providers to get a reasonably quick determination, and it allows carriers to object to treatments and testing before the procedure has begun.

Does a carrier have to respond to the Optional Prior Approval request if it is not participating in the process?
No. An insurance carrier who is not participating is not required to respond to an Optional Prior Approval request.

Can the insurance carrier obtain an IME or records review upon receiving a request for optional prior approval?

No. The insurance carrier must approve or deny the request based upon a review of the medical documentation to determine if the test or procedure is a consistent application of the Guidelines.

Who may deny an Optional Prior Approval request for the insurance carrier?
A denial of an Optional Prior Approval request must be reviewed by a medical professional and must include the basis for the denial.

Can a request for Optional Prior Approval and a Variance request be submitted at the same time?
Yes, however when multiple requests for Medical Guideline processes are received that are all integral to a primary procedure request, but have different carrier response timelines, the timeframe for all requests is extended to that of the request with the longest timeline to a maximum of 15 calendar days if there is no IME or 30 calendar days if IME is requested.

Can the insurance carrier deny the request for optional prior approval while waiting for the results of an independent medical exam?
No. The insurance carrier must approve or deny the request based on the application of the Guidelines.

Can physical and occupational therapists request optional prior approval?
No. The request for optional prior approval can only be made by the treating medical provider.

Variance Process

Does a medical provider have an option if he or she believes an injured worker needs treatment that is not consistent with the Guidelines?
It is recognized there are legitimate reasons for not adhering to the Medical Treatment Guidelines:

Extend duration of treatment when a patient is continuing to show objective functional improvement.
Individual circumstances, such as other medical conditions, may delay an individual's response to treatment, or make certain treatment appropriate.

Actual treatment is not addressed by the Guidelines.

Peer reviewed studies may provide evidence supporting new/alternative treatments.
In those cases, the Treating Medical Provider may submit a variance request on form MG-2.

Can the insurance carrier request an IME or records review upon receipt of a variance request?
Yes. The variance process does allow an additional amount of time (up to a total of 30 days) for the carrier to have an independent medical exam or record review as long as the insurance carrier notifies the provider and the Board within 5 days of a variance request that an independent medical exam or record review is being conducted.

The Guidelines indicate a specific number of visits for chiropractic treatment. Does that mean that a chiropractor would have to submit a request for additional visits?
Yes. The chiropractor may submit a variance request, but must document that the patient is continuing to show objective functional improvement (ie: improved range of motion, strength, and/or agility).

Can physical and occupational therapists request a variance?
No. The request for additional therapy can only be made by the treating medical provider.

Who at the insurance carrier must review the variance request if the insurance carrier intends to deny the request?
If the insurance carrier denies the request for a variance on the basis that the treating medical provider did not meet the burden of proof that a variance is appropriate for the claimant and medically necessary, the variance can be reviewed by the insurance carrier’s designated point of contact. If the denial of the variance is for any other reason, the denial must be reviewed by the medical professional designated by the insurance carrier.

Existing Claims

What if the claim is several years old and the injured worker has already received more than the recommended amount of physical therapy treatment? Do the Guidelines apply?
Yes, however the Guidelines will be applied prospectively. Therefore, the Guidelines’ recommended limits will apply to treatments on, or after, December 1, 2010. For example, if the doctor prescribes six weeks of physical therapy two times per week in mid-November, the portion of that therapy that occurs before December 1, 2010 is not subject to the Medical Treatment Guidelines. Beginning December 1, 2010, physical therapy may continue for up to 3 weeks and then, as required in the general principles of the Guidelines, the injured worker must be re-evaluated to determine if there is continuing objective functional improvement. Subsequent physical therapy must be consistent with the Guidelines or be approved through the variance process.

What if the claim is several years old and the injured worker has already received more than the recommended amount of chiropractic treatment? Do the Guidelines apply?
Yes. All existing cases will not have the full documentation on objective functional improvement, therefore medical providers and carriers must follow the general principles and the Treatment Guidelines as if it is a new case. For example, an injured worker has been receiving chiropractic treatment 2 times per month for over a year prior to December 1, 2010. As of December 1, 2010, the Medical Treatment Guidelines apply, therefore the injured worker must be evaluated at the end of a 3 week period to determine if there is continuing objective functional improvement. If the injured worker shows no objective functional improvement, additional chiropractic treatment would not be consistent with the Medical Treatment Guidelines.

If a procedure or test that requires pre-authorization was approved by the insurance carrier prior to December 1, 2010, but the procedure or test cannot be scheduled until after December 1, 2010, does the procedure or test have to comply with the Medical Treatment Guidelines?
No. Any procedure or test that has been pre-authorized by the carrier, by an Order of the Chair, or deemed authorized due an untimely response from the insurance carrier, before December 1, 2010, can be performed and will be compensated, even if it does not comply with the Guidelines.

If a Workers’ Compensation Law Judge had previously rendered a decision authorizing ongoing or symptomatic treatment, would the treatment have to follow the Medical Treatment Guidelines?
Yes. The Medical Treatment Guidelines will apply to cases with orders for ongoing or symptomatic treatment as necessary. If such treatment is not consistent with the Medical Treatment Guidelines, the carrier may object. If treatment exceeds the amount recommended under the Guidelines, the treating medical provider must show that there is a need for continuing treatment through the variance process.

Billing & Payment


What recourse does a medical provider have if treatment is rendered in accordance with the Guidelines and does not receive payment or a response from the insurance carrier?
If there is no response or payment within 45 days from the date the insurance carrier receives the bill, the medical provider may request an Administrative Award on Board form HP-1 .

What if the insurance carrier objects to a bill due to Guideline issues?
If an insurance carrier objects to a bill stating that the medical treatment was an incorrect application of the Guidelines, was not consistent with the Guidelines, or exceeded the approved variance, a C-8.1 form  must be timely filed with the Board and the medical provider. The objection will be decided through the Board’s adjudication process.

Forms

What Board forms are to be utilized by medical providers to report treatment rendered within the Guidelines?
The C-4 family of forms should be used to report all treatment rendered by physicians, chiropractors and podiatrists. Special Medical Treatment Guidelines forms are only utilized if the medical provider is requesting a variance or optional prior approval.

What Board form is utilized for requesting optional prior approval?
Form Form MG-1  must be utilized. In addition, form MG-1.1  can be completed and included with an MG-1 if the medical provider is requesting optional prior approval for additional treatment(s) or procedure(s) in the same case.

What Board form is utilized for requesting a variance?
Form MG-2  must be utilized. In addition, form MG-2.1  can be completed and included with an MG-2 if the medical provider is requesting variance(s) for additional treatment(s) or procedure(s) in the same case.

Multiple Body Part/Diagnoses

If the injured worker has two or more diagnosis for one body part, which results in different Medical Treatment Guideline paths, how do we determine which path is appropriate?
The treating medical provider may opt to follow the Medical Treatment Guidelines for either diagnosis.

If the injured worker has two or more diagnosis for two different body parts covered under the Medical Treatment Guidelines, which results in different Medical Treatment Guidelines paths, how do we determine which path is appropriate?
The treating provider may opt to follow the Medical Treatment Guidelines for either diagnosis for each body part.

How will bills/treatment issues be handled when the doctor is treating multiple injuries, including body parts that are covered by the Medical Treatment Guidelines and those that are not?
The treating medical provider must utilize the Medical Treatment Guidelines for those body parts covered by the Guidelines. For treatment of other body parts, the provider should follow their normal standard of care and the normal Board rules and processes, including authorization of treatment in excess of $1,000.

Out of State

How do the Medical Treatment Guidelines apply if an injured worker lives or receives treatment outside of New York State?
If the injured worker either lives or is treated in New York State, the Medical Treatment Guidelines apply. If the injured worker both lives and is treated outside New York State, the Medical Treatment Guidelines do not apply.

Other Questions

Do injured workers still have to obtain diagnostic tests from within a diagnostic network for treatment covered under the Medical Treatment Guidelines?
Yes. The Medical Treatment Guidelines have no effect on the insurance carrier’s right to direct an injured worker to their diagnostic network.

What if the injured worker changes treating medical providers mid-treatment? Do the timelines and/or number of treatments described in the Guidelines (e.g. physical therapy, chiropractic treatment) start again with the new provider?
No, the treatment performed by a subsequent treating provider would be a continuation of the treatment rendered by the initial provider. It is expected that the subsequent provider will access the initial provider’s records for continuity of care. If additional service is required beyond the guidelines, the treating provider will have to justify it through the variance process.

Do the Medical Treatment Guidelines have any effect on the requirements in the Preferred Provider Organization (PPO)?
No. The Medical Treatment Guidelines have no effect on the insurance carrier’s right to require an injured worker to obtain initial treatment from a medical provider participating in the PPO. Medical providers who are participating in a PPO program must also adhere to the Medical Treatment Guidelines.

What patient history and physical examination findings must medical providers submit with an optional prior approval, variance, or pre-authorization request?
The patient history and physical examination findings that medical providers must submit will depend on the type of injury and the treatment (or proposed treatment) plan.

In general, medical providers should include ALL patient history and physical examination findings that are relevant to the specific injury, diagnosis and treatment plan.

At a minimum, medical providers must provide sufficient patient history and physical examination findings to demonstrate compliance with the medical treatment guidelines. If the patient history and physical findings do not fully document and demonstrate compliance with the medical treatment guidelines, the claim may be denied.

Examples:


The Back Injury Medical Treatment Guidelines state that lumbar/transforaminal/epidural injections must be fluoroscopically guided except in cases where radiation exposure is contraindicated and ultrasound evaluation of needle placement may be used. If a medical provider uses ultrasound evaluation of needle placement in lieu of fluoroscopy because the patient is pregnant, the patient history and physical findings MUST clearly document the pregnancy status of the patient (Mid and Low Back Injury Medical Treatment Guidelines, Section D.6.a).
The Shoulder Injury Medical Treatment Guidelines state that rotator cuff repair for partial thickness rotator cuff tears may be appropriate (no pre-authorization required) if certain subjective, objective and imaging findings are present and if adequate conservative treatment lasting 3-6 months was completed. Therefore, the medical provider MUST ensure the patient history and physical examination clearly documents the required subjective, objective, and imaging findings as well as patient compliance with conservative care all of which are outlined in the guidelines (Shoulder Injury Medical Treatment Guidelines, Table 3).

Subcategories